The choice of tires for trucks and buses is a complex solution including a number of elements, and depending on the specific operating conditions.
In fact, the automotive manufacturers decide first. They conclude OEM contracts, and later owners identify possible replacement. Upon consideration of the factors must be taken into account not only the initial investment, but also costs and the possibility of regeneration, which is crucial in this business.
It is necessary to analyze the type of the vehicle, specific characteristics of the suspension, quality of the road surface, the load, the speed of movement, etc. For many years in the freight transport there was not differentiation of tires according to their purpose. Tires for truck and busses however climb all evolutionary steps like the car tires and it is logically because although the technologies for their production are specific, they are made with similar constructive approach and materials.In most cases the content of natural rubber has increased because of the increased load, the textile layers are also specific and the construction of metalcord. The development of this type of products starts like the development of passenger cars, with the diagonal tire passing through radially, provided with a tube, followed tubeless radial, low profile, and those with a wide base.
Nowadays there is strictly specifying the types of tires, and there are significant differences between those for steering axle, for driven axle and trailer. This is quite logical - each of these types of tires has different position, depending on the requirement for construction and load capacity and operates in different conditions. Steering tires for example have reinforced sidewalls and outer parts of the tread, as they have to cope with the lateral forces and simultaneously provide easy steering.
In most cases, the driving tires are paired and have to bear biggerload. Some companies offer a single drive axle tires that can be used under certain conditions and contribute reducing fuel consumption. Both types of tires are made with the necessary grooves for water diversion, as, of course, during designing them is considered the fact that these vehicles are moving with much slower speed than cars, so these grooves are bigger and deeper, but not always with such a complex configuration.
For many years for the trailers axles as a standard was accepted the configuration with two tires per axle but later appeared trailers with three axles with one tire of each (as the last axle has the ability to steer passively in order to reduce wear) and tires with small dimensions. Truck tires can be all-season and winter. That means that the responsibilities of the people who choose tires for trucks, are very big, as we already said, choosing the tire should be made on the basis of the conditions in which the machine operates. If the main part of their mileage is on highways, you do not need to use winter tires, but if the routes often pass through mountainous areas, with a lot of snowfalls,thesafety requires the use of special models of winter tires.
For the busesa main factor isthe comfort, but in this case the decision is complex and depends on the size, the total weight, number of axles, and so on . As manufacturers of trucks and buses, and tires manufacturers also provide their customers with details of the features of their products and experts in sales centers recommend the appropriate tire for each vehicle. A two-axle bus for example can be equipped with tires fully consistent with those for steering axles of trucks, but depending on the conditions of the rear axle can be placed tires for drive axles of trucks.
To standardize products, manufacturers have accepted a common qualification system depending on the conditions of use of cars and buses.
Steering axle tires are characterized by several deep and wide circumferential grooves that absorb water in movement. Thus ensure better performanceif there is a water layer, while providing a low noise level and most of all - better comfort and handling. Drive axle tires apply great traction and braking forces to the road surface and simultaneously with that bear on themselves considerably weight. That`s why they are made with exceptional durability and reliability. Therefore, the tread is characterized by much more rigid construction and a large number of both longitudinal and transverse grooves, which have to ensure optimal adhesion in all conditions. Tires for trailers are characterized by the presence of large longitudinal grooves. They must withstand heavy weight; have longer life and less rolling resistance. Regarding the tiresthat are used off the road, for them it is major importance to increase durability and reliability of the whole complex, and the tread in particular. Therefore on/off tiresare "reinforced" and have extremely stable tread. This applies in full force and tires for earthmoving and construction machinery.